An environmental indicator is a measure, generally quantitative, that can be used to illustrate and communicate complex environmental phenomena simply, including trends and progress over time — and thus helps provide insight into the state of the environment. Indicators are designed to answer key policy questions and support all phases of environmental policymaking, from designing policy frameworks to setting targets, and from policy monitoring and evaluation to communicating to policy-makers and the public.

The indicators available on this website have been developed jointly by the European Environment Agency (EEA), European Topic Centres on Inland, Coastal and Marine waters and national experts from Armenia under the ENI SEIS II East project funded by the European Union. The set of indicators is a selection from the UNECE Environmental Indicators, while EEA indicator template and DPSIR assessment framework have been followed for the indicators’ content.

C2 – Freshwater Abstraction in the Republic of Armenia

Armenia is a country with seasonal water stresses, which is due to the possibility of minimal water demand in the country. The annual water exploitation index (WEI) occasionally exceeds 40% (65% in 2000, 2008, 2019 and 2021).


C3 – Total water use in the Republic of Armenia

Between 2000 and 2021, total freshwater use has increased by 115.7 %. Agriculture, particularly irrigation and aquaculture, accounted for 86 % of total freshwater use in 2021.


C4 – Household water use per capita in the Republic of Armenia

An average Armenian citizen used 40,8 m3 of water from renewable freshwater resources in 2021 compared with 48 m3 in 2000.
Since 2009, there has been an increasing trend both in the total water supply to households and in water use per capita, due to the expansion of the public water supply system to rural areas.


C5 – Water supply industry and population connected to water supply industry in the Republic of Armenia

Most of the population (95.5 %) in Armenia was connected to the water supply in 2021.


C10 – Water Quality

Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and ammonium concentration have increased in Armenian rivers below settlements over the period 2010-2021. The main sources of BOD and ammonium pollution are discharge of non-treated or not sufficiently treated household wastewater, which due to the lack of treatment plants is directly emitted to the rivers, and agriculture runoff.


C11 – Nutrients in Freshwater

The nutrient concentrations have increased in Armenian rivers below settlements over the period 2008 to 2017 due to emissions of untreated domestic wastewater from settlements and diffuse runoff from agriculture. The main sources of nutrients are agriculture, wastewater and storm water. When nutrients are not fully utilized by plants, they can be lost from the farm fields and negatively impact downstream water quality.


D1 – Nationally Designated Protected Areas

Armenia has made substantial progress in designating also Emerald sites. Total protected area including Emerald sites reached to 25.6 % of the country territory in 2017. With this areal coverage of protected areas, Armenia surpassed already Aichi biodiversity target 11, which aims to have 17 % of terrestrial and inland water areas under the protected area system by 2020.