Armenia is not a water-scarce country; however, it faces severe water stress conditions, with an annual water exploitation index (WEI) of greater than 40 % (WEI 61.4 % in 2017), due to high demands for public water supply (61 %) and for agriculture (34 %). Total water abstraction for both sectors accounted for 95 % of annual total freshwater abstraction of the country in 2017.

Taking into account all available water resources in the country, Armenia has sufficient resources to supply approximately 3,100 m3 per capita per year (according to the Republic of Armenia Law “On National Water Program of the Republic of Armenia” (2006) the total annual quantity of usable surface water resources composes about 8.1 billion m3, and the quantity of usable groundwater resources composes 1 billion m3). However these water resources are not evenly distributed in space and time, with significant seasonal and annual variability in river runoff. Thus the proper management of water resources has a key role in the socio-economic development of Armenia.

However, Armenia is highly vulnerable to climate change. Armenia shows high exposure, high sensitivity, and limited adaptive capacity to climate change. It is shown that there has been a significant increase in temperature in Armenia over the last decades, with the increase in temperature by 0.4°C during 1929-1996 period compared to the average annual temperature during 1961-1990, and by 1.23% during 1992-2016 period. At the same time a decrease in the average annual precipitation during the 1935-1996 period is observed by 6%, and during the period from 1935 to 2016 is by about 9%.

To cope with climate change impact, the Government of Armenia launched a series of national stakeholders’ consultations for the national adaptation plan (NAP) process in June 2016. The Government sees the NAP process as a key step to achieving the adaptation objectives of its 2015 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) for selected sectors, including for water sector, which is highly vulnerable to climate change.

More information on climate change risks, vulnerabilities and impacts in Armenia can be found at:

International activities

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the international body for assessing the science related to climate change. The IPCC was set up in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to provide policymakers with regular assessments of the scientific basis of climate change, its impacts and future risks, and options for adaptation and mitigation (reference).

National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Armenia: With financing from the Green Climate Fund, the “National Adaptation Plan (NAP) to advance medium and long-term adaptation planning in Armenia” project will support the Government of Armenia to develop a national plan for climate change adaptation through an iterative process focused on strengthening foundational capacities to ensure that they are institutionalized for long-term sustainability.

Third National Communication to the UNFCCC – Republic of Armenia: The Third National Communication of the Republic of Armenia to the UNFCCC has been developed by the Ministry of Nature Protection of the Republic of Armenia in the frames of the “Enabling Activities for the Preparation of Armenia’s Third National Communication to the UNFCCC”. The document provides overview on the current status and activities towards climate change and climate change adaptation measures.

Armenia is currently preparing the Fourth Communication (NC4) under decision 17/CP7 and the Second Biennial Update Report (BUR2) under decision 2/CP17 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Armenia: Road Map for the Development of Climate Change related Statistics: the presentation outlines the available data and information on the climate change and adaptation measures.